An overview of thyroid disorders and their management
Keywords: Thyroid gland, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, iodide, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goitre, thyroid storm, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, exophthalmos, cretinism, myxoedema
AbstractDisorders of the thyroid gland are frequently encountered in the clinical practice setting and typically fall into one of two categories, namely hypothyroidism (i.e. deficient levels of circulating thyroid hormone), or hyperthyroidism (or thyrotoxicosis) that involves abnormally high levels of thyroid hormone in the blood stream. This article provides a high-level overview of thyroid function, the two major pathophysiological abnormalities of the thyroid gland, as well as treatment modalities aimed at managing patients with thyroid pathology. In addition, a brief description of two major autoimmune conditions of the thyroid gland, namely Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is also provided.
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